ART 1301 – History of Art: Paleolithic to the Middle Ages
Among the oldest indisputable evidence of the existence of art belong the monuments of the Late Paleolithic (40 – 35 thousand years old): abstract signs, carved on superhard rock surfaces; hand drawings and animalistic cave images; zoomorphic and anthropomorphic sculpture of small forms of bone and stone; engravings and bas-reliefs on bone, stone tiles and horn.
Primitive (or, otherwise, primitive) art territorially covers all continents, except Antarctica, and in time – the entire era of human existence, preserved by some peoples living in remote corners of the planet, until the present day.
Most of the ancient paintings are found in Europe (from Spain to the Urals).
Well preserved on the walls of caves – the entrances were blocked for thousands of years ago, there was maintained the same temperature and humidity.
Not only the wall paintings were preserved, but also other evidence of human activity – clear traces of bare feet of adults and children on the wet floor of some caves.
Reasons for the birth of creativity and functions of primitive art The human need for beauty and creativity.
The beliefs of the time. Man portrayed those he revered. People of the time believed in magic: they believed that with the help of paintings and other images can affect the nature or the outcome of the hunt. It was believed, for example, that one had to strike the painted beast with an arrow or spear to ensure the success of the actual hunt.
Now science is changing its mind about the age of the earth and the time frame is changing, but we will study by the common names of the periods.
1. Stone Age
1.1 Ancient Stone Age – Paleolithic. . up to 10,000 B.C.
1.2 Middle Stone Age – Mesolithic. Tenth to Sixth Millennium BC.
1.3 New Stone Age-Neolithic From the 6th to the 2nd millennium BC 2.
2. Bronze Age. 2nd millennium BC 3.
3. Iron Age. 1 Millennium B.C.
Quiz 4 Answers
The medium of the artwork that decorates the Sistine Chapel ceiling is ________.
A. tempera on panel
D. stone relief
E. oil on canvas
What concepts of beauty are conveyed in the sculpture of a head, believed to represent a king of Ife?
A. all of the other answers
B. graceful and refined facial features
C. elegant lines, delicate features, and a composed demeanor
D. the community’s core values of composure, wisdom, and power
E. both internal attributes as well as external appearance
This intaglio printing process involves carefully and cleanly scoring a metal plate.
This red chalk was used by Renaissance artists, including Michelangelo for his Studies for the Libyan Sibyl.
When and where was the artist of Olympia working?
A. twenty-first-century America
B. twentieth-century Japan
C. nineteenth-century France
D. sixteenth-century Italy
E. prehistoric Europe
The chiaroscuro method uses five defined values: cast shadow, reflected light, core shadow, light, and ________
E. none of the other answers
Linear perspective is the system for creating an illusion of depth using three basic components: horizon line, vanishing point and convergence lines.
The Arnolfini Portrait is part of which period in art?
A. Italian Baroque
B. Northern Baroque
C. Italian Renaissance
E. Northern Renaissance
The medieval Arabic scholar Alhazen used a camera obscura, a device which later helped artists to understand the basic tenets of linear perspective. Camera obscura is a Latin phrase. What is the closest English translation?
A. celestial cylinder
B. blank canvas
C. dark room
D. none of the other answers
When objects are far away they lack contrast, detail, and sharpness of focus because of the interference of air. Artists take advantage of this when they use the process called
A. none of the other answers
B. isometric perspective
C. atmospheric perspective
D. linear perspective
This term for plate printmaking means “cut into” in Italian.
Erasers are often used by artists as drawing tools. In 1953 Robert Rauschenberg created a work by erasing a drawing by this famous Abstract Expressionist painter.
A. Edgar Degas
B. Willem de Kooning
D. Georges Seurat
E. Vincent van Gogh
Linear perspective is used to ________.
A. teach printmakers the steps of their process
B. represent the illusion of three-dimensional space in two dimensions
C. replicate the appearance of great expenses of space
D. make maps more effectively
E. all of the other answers
Who is Phocion in Nicolas Poussin’s painting of The Funeral of Phocion?
A. one of the men carrying the body
B. an artist who was executed for painting a scene against his ruler
C. an Athenian general wrongly accused of treason
D. an especially ruthless tax collector
E. the owner of the house in the background
Triangular planes make up the surface of a geodesic sphere. Planes that are closer to and facing toward the light source tend to be lighter than planes that are further and face away from it
When using a series of squares that are exactly the same shape, implied depth can be achieved by ________.
B. alternating value
C. relative position
D. all of the other answers
E. relative size
In Mantegna’s The Lamentation over the Dead Christ, the body of Jesus is portrayed at an extreme angle. This ________ view creates an unusual perspective and grabs the viewer’s attention.
A. bird’s eye
This printmaking process means “stone writing” in Greek.
In Ascending and Descending, M. C. Escher uses ________ perspective.
The process of using a series of parallel lines set close to one another to differentiate planes of value in a work of art is called ________.
D. core shadow
What did Janine Antoni of Loving Care do to create the work?
A. she took pictures of thousands of nude people
B. she dipped her head in a bucket of dye and mopped the floor with her hair
C. she impersonated a famous work of art
D. she instructed a room full of models to stand still and not speak
E. she directed other people to paint with their bodies
If an artist wants to create a print with very fine detail and precise, even lines, drypoint would be a good method to use.
Tintoretto’s Last Supper has a very similar symmetrical composition to Leonardo da Vinci’s painting of the same subject.
Dürer’s print of The Last Supper reflects the ideas of ________.
B. the Pope
C. the Protestant Reformation
D. the Counter-Reformation
E. his friend Michelangelo
The lightness or darkness of a surface is the element of art called value.